There is often confusion about the difference between Rheumatic Fever and Scarlet Fever. They are linked but separate conditions. Here I will explain, in simple language, the differences between these two inflammatory childhood diseases. Both incidentally are very rare nowadays in the developed world. They are not altogether eradicated but they are very rare. If you live in a developed country and think you might have Scarlet Fever, all I can say is that it is very unlikely.